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Title: Біотестування як метод дослідження токсичності ґрунтів
Other Titles: Биотестирование как метод исследования токсичности почв
Biotesting as a method of soil toxicity study
Authors: Тригуб, Валентина Іванівна
Домусчи, Світлана Василівна
Тригуб, Валентина Ивановна
Домусчи, Светлана Васильевна
Trigub, Valentina I.
Domuschy, Svitlana V.
Citation: Вісник Одеського національного університету = Odesa National University Herald
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Одеський національний університет імені І. І. Мечникова
Keywords: біотестування
методи дослідження
міські ґрунти
методы исследования
городские почвы
research methods
urban soils
Series/Report no.: Географічні та геологічні науки;Т. 25, вип. 2(37).
Abstract: В статті розглянуто можливості використання біотестування як сучасного інформаційного методу щодо забруднення навколишнього середовища загалом та ґрунтового покриву зокрема різноманітними токсичними речовинами. Виокремлено періоди розвитку фітоіндикаційних досліджень. Визначено роль біологічних методів при дослідженні токсичності ґрунтів, особливо в умовах сучасного антропогенного навантаження. Пропонується внести методи біотестування до переліку моніторингових досліджень при оцінці забруднення об’єктів біосередовища міських та приміських територій.
В статье рассмотрена возможность использования биотестирования как современного информационного метода при оценке загрязнении окружающей среды в целом и почвенного покрова в частности разнообразными токсическими веществами. Выделены периоды развития фитоиндикационных исследований. Определена роль биологических методов при исследовании токсичности городских почв в условиях современной антропогенной нагрузки. Предлагается внести методы биотестирования в перечень мониторинговых исследований при оценке загрязнения объектов биосреды городских и пригородных территорий.
Problem Statement and Purpose. In the conditions of economic crisis, significant reduction of funds for scientific research on the one hand, and deterioration of the ecological state of the natural system "environment-man" on the other, there is an urgent necessity to use less expensive but modern methods of research of man-made soils with the aim of doing its ecotoxic assessment. One of the most common methods that meet these needs are biotesting methods. In today's conditions, they are used by biologists, ecologists, geologists, soil scientists, physicians. Such "popularity" of biotesting methods is caused by their simplicity of performance, wide possibilities of researches, considerable informativeness concerning pollution of practically all components of environment. The purpose of this study is to analyze and summarize existing methods of biotesting in order to use them in determining the ecological status of soils. Data & Methods. As a methodological basis used the developments that are out-lined in scientific papers published by R. Kabirov, K. Kozeev, J. Didukh, A. Gorova, A. Bubnov, O. Baghdasaryan and own research concerning biotesting of soils of the city of Odessa were used. Both general scientific methods (analysis and synthesis, systematic approach, induction and deduction) and specific scientific methods were used in the work: historical-geographical, comparative- geographical. Results. The current system of environmental pollution control is based on a quantitative comparison of the component composition of samples with the maximum allowable concentrations of bulk forms of pollutants. This approach does not allow taking into account all possible interactions between chemical compounds; is time-consuming in research and does not determine the effect of mobile forms, the most toxic to living organisms. To determine the degree of toxicity of soils and other components of the bioenvironment is possible through biotesting. Modern methods of biotesting make it possible to obtain an integrated toxicological characteristic of complex contamination of both soils and other components of the bioenvironment by the reaction of living organisms. Various test systems, from bacteria to mammals, are used to assess the state of the environment. However, the most common methods of biotesting are tests with using plants. With the help of plants bioindication of various components of the natural environment is conducted. Indicator plants are used in assessing the acid composition of soils, their fertility, waterlogging and salinization; the degree of mineralization of groundwater and the degree of air pollution by various gaseous compounds, etc. In recent decades, special attention has been paid to the study of the ecological condition of urban and suburban areas. A feature of soil pollution (especially urban) with chemicals is their multicomponent nature. Currently, biotesting methods are widely used in soil research due to oil pollution, heavy metal pollution of urban areas, anthropogenic pollution of rural areas, pollution by fluoride compounds and other toxic substances that degrade not only the environment but also significantly affect human health. Despite some disadvantages of biotesting, the prospects of controlling anthropogenic soil pollution with biotests are justified by numerous studies by scientists from different countries. Biotesting methods can be recommended for continuous rapid monitoring of the environment of industrial areas and natural and economic complexes, control of harmful emissions of enterprises, environmental certification of enterprises and individual areas. The ecological status of bioindicators can be used as additional information in assessing of public health.
Other Identifiers: УДК 504.53:504.054
DOI: 10.18524/2303-9914.2020.2(37).216565
Appears in Collections:Вісник Одеського національного університету. Географічні та геологічні науки

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