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Authors: О.І. Цуркан
Я.М. Біланчин
O. I. Tsurkan
Ya. M. Bilanchyn
Citation: Вісник ОНУ. Сер.: Географічні та геологічні науки. 2018. Т. 23, вип. 2. С. 55-68.
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Одеський національний університет імені І.І. Мечникова
Keywords: чорноземи південні, краплинне зрошення, сольовий режим, карбонатний режим, вода р. Дністер
southern chernozems, drip irrigation, salt regime, carbonate regime, water of Dnister river.
Abstract: В статті представлені результати досліджень зміни речовинно-хімічного складу та сольового і карбонатного режимів чорноземів південних за краплинного зро¬шення сільськогосподарських культур в степовій зоні України водою першого класу якості. Встановлено, що примінення краплинного способу поливу овоче¬вих культур призвело до деякого погіршення агромеліоративного стану чорно¬земів та високої варіабельності показників їх родючості. Досліджено післядію примінення поверхневого краплинного зрошення в овочевій сівозміні щодо со¬льового й карбонатного режимів чорноземів південних.
Description: Problem Statement and Purpose. Drip irrigation is used more widely for cultivation of agricultural crops in the Steppe of Ukraine. Influence of this method of moisture supply on the southern chernozems and patterns of their salt and carbonate regimes in condition of drip irrigation by first class water stays insufficiently studied. Accordingly to this the purpose of the study is the estimate of influence of long-term drip irrigation on salt and carbonate regimes of southern chernozems, their essence and direction of change and fertility in irrigational conditions. Data&Methods. Physical and chemical analyses of soils and irrigational water were made in order to certified standard methods and mobile calcium was defined using Drueeno-Gale method. Research was conducted on the territory of agricultural firm “Dobra Gorodyna”, Bilyayivka district of Odesa region. Results .The results of research of drip irrigation influence on the chemical composition and chernozems properties show that the applying of the drip irrigation method to vegetables led to certain degradation agro-meliorative condition in chernozems and high variability of their fertility indicators. The salt regime of southern chernozems in drip irrigation conditions is characterized with a tendency of increasing of salts in arable and sub-plow horizons. The greatest differences in chernozems salt content, which are irrigated in drip method, are noted till 70 cm depth and then they are leveled. The tendency to decrease of the relation of absorbed Са2+: Na+ and increasing of relation Na+ + K+ with the sum of absorbed cations are visible throughout the soil profile. The top part of chernozem profile is lixiviated because of calcium carbonates and their active forms during vegetative and irrigational period. The condition of chernozem does not restore under spring barley during two vegetative season without irrigation. The differences in salt composition of soil profile maintain without irrigation during two years under barley. In arable horizon of this chernozems the differences of salinity persists and the content of sulfates and sodium stays little more heightened. The level of possible irrigational salt content of arable layer stays on the verge of weak ones. Under the barley the profile allocation of active calcium restores to initial values whereas general carbonate content stays a little bit lower.
ISSN: 2303-9914
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