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Title: Cold season soil NO fluxes from a temperate forest: drivers and contribution to annual budgets
Authors: Medinets, S.
Gasche, R.
Skiba, U. M.
Schindlbacher, A.
Kiese, R.
Butterbach-Bahl, K.
Citation: Environ. Res. Lett. 11 (2016) 114012. – Р.1-11. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/11/114012
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Publishing Ltd
Keywords: nitric oxide,N2O,CO2, freeze-thaw, snow
Abstract: Soils, and here specifically acidic forest soils exposed to high rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, are a significant source for the secondary greenhouse gas nitric oxide (NO). However, as flux estimates are mainly based on measurements during the vegetation period, annualNOemissions budgets may hold uncertainty as cold season soilNOfluxes have rarely been quantified. Here we analyzed cold season soilNOfluxes and potential environmental drivers on the basis of the most extensive database on forest soilNOfluxes obtained at the Höglwald Forest, Germany, spanning the years 1994 to 2010. Onaverage, the cold season (daily average air temperature<3 °C) contributed to 22% of the annual soilNObudget, varying from 13% to 41% between individual cold seasons. Temperature was the main controlling factor of the cold seasonNOfluxes, whereas during freeze-thaw cycles soil moisture availability determinedNOemission rates. The importance of cold season soilNOfluxes for annual NOfluxes depended positively on the length of the cold season, but responded negatively to frost events. Snow cover did not significantly affect cold season soilNOfluxes. Cold seasonNOfluxes significantly correlated with cold season soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. During freeze-thaw periods strong positive correlations betweenNOandN2Ofluxes were observed, though stimulation ofNOfluxes by freeze-thaw was by far less pronounced as compared toN2O. Except for freeze-thaw periodsNOfluxes significantly exceeded those forN2Oduring the cold season period.Weconclude that in temperate forest ecosystems cold seasonNOemissions can contribute substantially to the annualNObudget and this contribution is significantly higher in years with long lasting but mild (less frost events) cold seasons.
ISSN: 1748-9326
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